# Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers

## Uncovering Student Thinking in Mathematics- 25 K-12 Formative Assessment Probes

The 10 assessment probes in the "Number and Operations" section of this book can be used as a CTS application to examine student thinking after conducting a CTS. Additionally, the teacher background notes provide valuable information on instructional implications (CTS Section II) and research on learning (CTS Section III). For example, the "Comparing FRactions" probe can be used with the "Fractions" CTS to examine student work related to part-whole relationships when comparing fractions.

- Addition and Subtraction
- Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers
- Assessment Task
- Comparing and Ordering Numbers
- Computation and Operations
- Counting
- Decimals
- Equivalence
- Estimation
- Exponents
- Facts
- Fractions
- Fractions, Decimals, and Percents
- Large and Small Numbers
- Mathematics Education Book
- Multiplication and Division
- Multiplication and Division of Whole Numbers
- Numbers and Operations
- Percent
- Place Value
- Properties of Operations
- Ratio and Proportion
- Rational Numbers

## Upper Elementary School Pupils' Difficulties in Modeling and Solving Nonstandard Additive Word Problems Involving Ordinal Numbers.

This article provides information about the scope and nature of studentsí difficulties with modeling and solving non-routine word problems using addition or subtraction. Highlighted misconceptions about numbers and arithmetic operations can be used to supplement section IV.

## Upper Elementary School Pupils' Difficulties in Modeling and Solving Nonstandard Additive Word Problems Involving Ordinal Numbers.

This article provides information about the scope and nature of studentsí difficulties with modeling and solving non-routine word problems using addition or subtraction. Highlighted misconceptions about numbers and arithmetic operations can be used to supplement section IV.

## The Young Mathematician at Work: Addition and Subtraction (1st in a series of 3 volumes)

Each book in this series of three illuminates the progression of strategies, the development of big ideas and the mathematical models that children construct. The first volume focuses on how young children develop an understanding of number, addition and subtraction. The second volume focuses on how students develop an understanding of multiplication and division. The third volume highlights how students develop an understanding of fractions, decimals and percents.

## Teaching for K-12 Mathematical Understanding Using the Conceptual Change Model

Chapter 3 of this resource can be used to supplement Section IV: Research on Student Learning for topics in the Numbers and Operations Category. The Chapter includes information about 1) Student difficulties, confusion, and misconceptions and 2) Factors contributing to students' difficulties, confusion, and misconceptions.

## Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally (Sixth Edition)

This resource helps readers make sense of mathematics interweaving content ideas with instructional implications. Sixteen chapters reflect the view that mathematics can be taught through a problem-solving approach that motivates children and builds their confidence as they learn. Chapter 9 (pages 120-137) supplements Section II by providing instructional implications for number development in the early grades.

## Children's Conceptual Structures for Multidigit Numbers and Methods of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction.

Description: A summary of the structures used by students for adding and subtracting mulitdigit numbers. The article identifies and describes categories of methods devised by students to sovle the problems as well as typical errors that may arise with each method. This article can be used to supplement sections II and IV.

## Alternative Algorithms: Increasing Options, Reducing Errors

This article describes a variety of computational techniques for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of whole numbers. This resource could be used in conjunction with sections I, II and III.

## A Mathematics Source Book for Elementary and Middle School Teachers

This book discusses many mathematical topics providing key concepts, connections, teaching tips and learning pitfalls. Corresponding NAEP and/or TIMSS are also given. This book would be an additional resource to sections II, III and IV.

- Addition and Subtraction
- Addition and Subtraction of Whole Numbers
- Computation and Operations
- Decimals
- Exponents
- Fractions
- Fractions, Decimals, and Percents
- Integers
- Mathematics Education Book
- Multiplication and Division
- Multiplication and Division of Whole Numbers
- Numbers and Operations
- Percent
- Ratio and Proportion
- Rational Numbers