Description: A summary of the structures used by students for adding and subtracting mulitdigit numbers. The article identifies and describes categories of methods devised by students to sovle the problems as well as typical errors that may arise with each method. This article can be used to supplement sections II and IV.
Fuson, Karen C. , Wearne, Diana, Hiebert, James C., Murray, Hanlie G. , Human, Pieter G., Olivier, Alwyn I. , Carpenter, Thomas P., and Fennema, Elizabeth (1997).Childrenís Conceptual Structures for Multidigit Numbers and Methods of Multidigit Addition and Subtraction. Journal for Research in Mathematics March Issue: 130-162